מהו חינוך אלטרנטיבי
קשה להכליל ולהגדיר את כל זרמי החינוך האלטרנטיבי בכפיפה אחת. כל זרם הוא השקפת עולם שלמה העומדת בפני עצמה. כמה מגדולי הפדגוגים במאה-20 ייסדו את הזרמים השונים: מריה מונטסורי, רודולף שטיינר, דניאל גרינברג, ג’ון דיואי, ג’ון הולט ואחרים, וכל אחד מהם הקדיש את חייו לפיתוח וניסוח שיטתו.
עם זאת, נראה שהדבר המשותף לכל הגישות האלטרנטיביות הוא העמדת הילד במרכז, ארגון AERO: Alternative Education Resource Organization אמנם מגדיר כך את עיקר משימתו: “לעזור להניע מהפכה חינוכית שתאפשר גישה חופשית לאלטרנטיבות חינוכיות המעמידות את התלמיד במרכז”. בתי הספר הממלכתיים מעמידים לרוב את ניהול הכיתה במרכז (ולעתים אף את בית הספר במרכז), הכיתה היא היחידה האורגנית, ותפקידם של המורים הוא להצליח בלימוד הכיתה ככלל. הגישות האלטרנטיביות דואגות בראש ובראשונה להתפתחותו התקינה ולאושרו של כל תלמיד ותלמיד ולא של הכיתה כולה.
נקודה נוספת המשותפת לזרמי החינוך העצמאיים היא אימוצם של אלמנטים ממה שמכונה בימינו ‘תורת האינטליגנציות המרובות’. את התיאוריה גיבש בשנות ה-80 של המאה ה-20 חוקר אוניברסיטת הארוורד האוורד גרדנר, אך אלמנטים דומים מאוד אפשר למצוא גם בגישות שלמותיות לחינוך בזרמים האלטרנטיביים השונים. תורת האינטליגנציות המרובות מרחיבה את הספקטרום של סוגי אינטליגנציה אנושית ויכולות למידה ומחייבת לפיכך תפישות חינוכיות חדשות. לפי תורה זו האינטליגנציה האנושית מכילה מגוון של כשרים שכליים, אולם בתי הספר מלמדים באופן עקבי בשיטה המתאימה רק לכשרים ומיומנויות מילוליות ולוגיות-מתמטיות. ילדים אינם לומדים אך ורק מקריאה, כתיבה וחישוב תרגילי חשבון, הם לומדים על העולם גם באמצעות כשרים מרחביים ואסטטיים, מוזיקליים, חברתיים וכן הלאה. ההורים יודעים זאת היטב כיוון שכך הם עצמם טיפחו וחינכו את ילדיהם מאז שנולדו, אבל עם זאת הם שולחים את הילדים (שהתחנכו על ידם להשתמש במגוון האינטליגנציות שלהם) לבתי ספר שבהם הילדים מוגבלים לפתע במה שהם לומדים ובדרך שבה הם לומדים זאת.
מקור: אתר "חינוך אלטרנטיבי"
מתוך ויקיפדיה האנגלית: The Montessori Method of Education, developed by Maria Montessori, is a child-centered educational approach based on scientific observations of children. Montessori's method has been used for over 100 years in many parts of the world.
The Montessori method views the child as one who is naturally eager for knowledge and capable of initiating learning in a supportive, thoughtfully prepared learning environment. It attempts to develop children physically, socially, emotionally and cognitively.
- Mixed age classrooms; classrooms for children ages 2½ or 3 to 6 years old are by far the most common, but 0–3, 3–6, 6–9, 9–12, 12–15, and 15–18-year-old classrooms exist as well.
- Student choice of activity from within a prescribed range of options.
- Uninterrupted blocks of work time, ideally three hours.
- A constructivist or "discovery" model, where students learn concepts from working with materials, rather than by direct instruction.
- Specialized educational materials developed by Montessori and her collaborators often made out of natural, aesthetic materials such as wood, rather than plastic.
- A thoughtfully prepared environment where materials are organized by subject area, within reach of the child, and are appropriate in size.
- Freedom within limits.
- A trained Montessori teacher who follows the child and is highly experienced in observing the individual child's characteristics, tendencies, innate talents and abilities.
חינוך אנתרופוסופי (חינוך ולדורף או חינוך שטיינר)
Waldorf education, also known as Steiner education, is based on the educational philosophy of Rudolf Steiner, the founder of Anthroposophy. Its pedagogy strives to develop pupils' intellectual, artistic, and practical skills in an integrated and holistic manner. The cultivation of pupils' imagination and creativity is a central focus.
Individual teachers and schools have a great deal of autonomy in determining curriculum content, teaching methodology, and governance. Qualitative assessments of student work are integrated into the daily life of the classroom, with quantitative testing playing a minimal role and standardized testing usually limited to what is required to enter post-secondary education.
Dialogic education is an educational philosophy and pedagogical approach that draws on many authors and traditions. In effect, dialogic education takes place through dialogue by opening up dialogic spaces for the co-construction of new meaning to take place within a gap of differing perspectives. In a dialogic classroom, students are encouraged to build on their own and others’ ideas, resulting not only in education through dialogue but also education for dialogue.
Dialogic education has been defined as engaging students in an ongoing process of shared enquiry taking the form of a dialogue and as Robin Alexander outlines in his work on dialogic teaching, it involves drawing students into a process of co-constructing knowledge. Rupert Wegerif sums this up by claiming that 'Dialogic Education is education for dialogue as well as education through dialogue'.
In teaching through the opening of a shared dialogic space, dialogic education draws students into the co-construction of shared knowledge by questioning and building on dialogue rather than simply learning a set of facts. As argued by Bakhtin, children learn through persuasive dialogue rather than an authoritative transmission of facts, which enables them to understand by seeing from different points of view. Merleau-Ponty writes that when dialogue works it should no longer be possible to determine who is thinking because learners will find themselves thinking together. It has been suggested by Robin Alexander that in dialogic education, teachers should frame questions carefully in order to encourage reflection and take different student’s contributions and present them as a whole. In addition, answers should be considered as leading to further questions in dialogue rather than an end goal.
Summerhill School is an independent (i.e. fee-paying) British boarding school that was founded in 1921 by Alexander Sutherland Neill with the belief that the school should be made to fit the child, rather than the other way around. It is run as a democratic community; the running of the school is conducted in the school meetings, which anyone, staff or pupil, may attend, and at which everyone has an equal vote. These meetings serve as both a legislative and judicial body. Members of the community are free to do as they please, so long as their actions do not cause any harm to others, according to Neill's principle "Freedom, not Licence." This extends to the freedom for pupils to choose which lessons, if any, they attend. It is an example of both democratic education and alternative education.
תבנית:See also Summerhill is noted for its philosophy that children learn best with freedom from coercion. A philosophy that was promoted by the New Ideals in Education Conferences (1914–37) that helped to define the good modern primary school as child-centred. All lessons are optional, and pupils are free to choose what to do with their time. Neill founded Summerhill with the belief that "the function of a child is to live his own life—–not the life that his anxious parents think he should live, not a life according to the purpose of an educator who thinks he knows best."
In addition to taking control of their own time, pupils can participate in the self-governing community of the school. School meetings are held twice a week, where pupils and staff alike have an equal voice in the decisions that affect their day-to-day lives, discussing issues and creating or changing school laws. The rules agreed at these meetings are wide ranging—from agreeing on acceptable bed times to making nudity allowed around the pool and within the classrooms. Meetings are also an opportunity for the community to vote on a course of action for unresolved conflicts, such as a fine for a theft (usually the fine consists of having to pay back the amount stolen). If there is an urgent reason to have a meeting, children and staff can ask the chairperson to hold a special meeting, and this is written on the main whiteboard, before a meal time, so that the whole school knows and can attend.
In creating its laws and dealing out sanctions, the school meeting generally applies A. S. Neill's maxim "Freedom not Licence" (he wrote a book of the same name); the principle that you can do as you please, so long as it doesn't cause harm to others. For example, pupils may swear within the school grounds, but calling someone else an offensive name is licence.
Classes are voluntary at Summerhill.תבנית:Rp Although most students attend, depending on their age and reasons, children choose whether to go of their own accord and without adult compulsion.תבנית:Rp The staff discuss new children and those who they feel may have issues that interfere with their freedom to choose (e.g., fear of classrooms, shyness to learn in front of others, lack of confidence), and propose and vote on interventions, if needed, during staff meetings. This is called the 'Special Attention List'. The staff meet at least twice a week to discuss issues; those relevant to the community will be brought to a community meeting. Children can attend these meetings when they ask, but are asked to leave when individual students are discussed, to maintain the privacy of the student.
A Sudbury school is a type of school, usually for the K-12 age range, where students have complete responsibility for their own education, and the school is run by a direct democracy in which students and staff are almost equals. Students independently decide what to do with their time, and tend to learn as a by-product of ordinary experience rather than through coursework. There is no predetermined educational syllabus, prescriptive curriculum or standardized instruction. This is a form of democratic education. Daniel Greenberg, one of the founders of the original Sudbury Model school, writes that the two things that distinguish a Sudbury Model school are that everyone - adults and children - are treated equally and that there is no authority other than that granted by the consent of the governed.
Sudbury schools are based on:
- The educational belief that children are extremely good at (and therefore do not need to be taught) the main behaviors they will need as adults, such as creativity, imagination, alertness, curiosity, thoughtfulness, responsibility, and judgement. What children lack is experience, which can be gained if adults guide students in open ways.
- The sociopolitical belief that having full democratic rights in childhood is the best way to become an adult who is comfortable functioning within a democracy.
"The fundamental premises of the school are simple: that all people are curious by nature; that the most efficient, long-lasting, and profound learning takes place when started and pursued by the learner; that all people are creative if they are allowed to develop their unique talents; that age-mixing among students promotes growth in all members of the group; and that freedom is essential to the development of personal responsibility."
חינוך משלב יהודי-ערבי
חינוך משלב חילוניים-דתיים
למידה מבוססת פרויקטים
Project-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered pedagogy that involves a dynamic classroom approach in which it is believed that students acquire a deeper knowledge through active exploration of real-world challenges and problems. Students learn about a subject by working for an extended period of time to investigate and respond to a complex question, challenge, or problem. It is a style of active learning and inquiry-based learning. PBL contrasts with paper-based, rote memorization, or teacher-led instruction that presents established facts or portrays a smooth path to knowledge by instead posing questions, problems or scenarios.
Thomas Markham (2011) describes project-based learning (PBL) thus: "PBL integrates knowing and doing. Students learn knowledge and elements of the core curriculum, but also apply what they know to solve authentic problems and produce results that matter. PBL students take advantage of digital tools to produce high quality, collaborative products. PBL refocuses education on the student, not the curriculum—a shift mandated by the global world, which rewards intangible assets such as drive, passion, creativity, empathy, and resiliency. These cannot be taught out of a textbook, but must be activated through experience." James G. Greeno (2006) has associated project-based learning with the "situated learning" perspective and with the constructivist theories of Jean Piaget. Blumenfeld et al. elaborate on the processes of PBL: "Project-based learning is a comprehensive perspective focused on teaching by engaging students in investigation. Within this framework, students pursue solutions to nontrivial problems by asking and refining questions, debating ideas, making predictions, designing plans and/or experiments, collecting and analyzing data, drawing conclusions, communicating their ideas and findings to others, asking new questions, and creating artifacts." The basis of PBL lies in the authenticity or real-life application of the research. Students working as a team are given a "driving question" to respond to or answer, then directed to create an artifact (or artifacts) to present their gained knowledge. Artifacts may include a variety of media such as writings, art, drawings, three-dimensional representations, videos, photography, or technology-based presentations.
KaosPilot - פדגוגיה מבוססת הזדמנות
Kaospilot (lit.: Chaos Pilot) is an alternative business school located in Aarhus, Denmark, right at the harbor. Kaospilot is an international education which yearly accepts 35-37 national and international students, with a minimum age of 21. It was founded by Uffe Elbæk in 1991 and today is funded by the European Union and student fees. Kaospilot programs teach in the fields of leadership, business design, process design and project design. The educational philosophy focuses on personal development, value-based entrepreneurship, creativity and social innovation. The Kaospilot program was nominated by Business Week in 2007 as a top Design School and has inspired schools in Australia, Norway, Sweden, Denmark and The Netherlands.
The Kaospilot curriculum is approved by EQUIS, AACSB and AMBA accredited Aarhus BSS, Aarhus University. The programme takes 3 years, divided into phases in place of classes or subjects. The approach is team based with teams starting, studying and graduating together and every year the school accepts around 37 students who together constitute a team.
The curriculum is divided in four disciplines: Creative Business Design, Creative Leadership Design, Creative Project Design and Creative Process Design with each discipline divided into sub-components. The pedagogical platform relies on opportunity-based-pedagogy (i.e. to see, understand, create and act upon opportunities) and is rooted in many different approaches such as reflection over action, appreciative inquiry, systems thinking, positive psychology action learning, coaching and mentoring.
* חינוך דמוקרטי ופתוח
חינוך ביתי Homeschooling and Unschooling
Homeschooling, also known as home education is the education of children at home or a variety of places other than school. Home education is usually conducted by a parent or tutor or online teacher. Many families use less formal ways of educating. "Homeschooling" is the term commonly used in North America, whereas "home education" is commonly used in the United Kingdom, Europe, and in many Commonwealth countries.
According to the US National Center for Education Statistics, about three percent of all children in the US were homeschooled in 2011–2012 school year. The study found that 83 percent were White, 5 percent were Black, 7 percent were Hispanic, and 2 percent were Asian or Pacific Islander. As of 2016, there are about 1.7 million homeschooled students in the United States.
On average, homeschoolers score at or above the national average on standardized tests. Homeschool students have been accepted into many Ivy League universities.
Homeschools use a wide variety of methods and materials. Families choose different educational methods, which represent a variety of educational philosophies and paradigms. Some of the methods or learning environments used include Classical education (including Trivium, Quadrivium), Charlotte Mason education, Montessori method, Theory of multiple intelligences, Unschooling, Radical Unschooling, Waldorf education, School-at-home (curriculum choices from both secular and religious publishers), A Thomas Jefferson Education, unit studies, curriculum made up from private or small publishers, apprenticeship, hands-on-learning, distance learning (both online and correspondence), dual enrollment in local schools or colleges, and curriculum provided by local schools and many others. Some of these approaches are used in private and public schools.תבנית:Citation needed Educational research and studies support the use of some of these methods. Unschooling, natural learning, Charlotte Mason Education, Montessori, Waldorf, apprenticeship, hands-on-learning, unit studies are supported to varying degrees by research by constructivist learning theories and situated cognition theories.תבנית:Clarify Elements of these theories may be found in the other methods as well.
A student's education may be customized to support his or her learning level, style, and interests. It is not uncommon for a student to experience more than one approach as the family discovers what works best for their student. Many families use an eclectic approach, picking and choosing from various suppliers. For sources of curricula and books a study found that 78 percent utilized "a public library"; 77 percent used "a homeschooling catalog, publisher, or individual specialist"; 68 percent used "retail bookstore or another store"; 60 percent used "an education publisher that was not affiliated with homeschooling." "Approximately half" used curriculum from "a homeschooling organization", 37 percent from a "church, synagogue or other religious institution" and 23 percent from "their local public school or district." In 2003, 41 percent utilized some sort of distance learning, approximately 20 percent by "television, video or radio"; 19 percent via "The Internet, e-mail, or the World Wide Web"; and 15 percent taking a "correspondence course by mail designed specifically for homeschoolers."תבנית:Clarify
The model differs in some ways from other types of democratic schools and free schools, but there are many similarities:
- De-emphasis of classes: There is no curriculum or set of required courses. Instead learner interest guides things, with students studying what they want to study. There are generally no classrooms, just rooms where people choose to congregate.
- Age mixing: students are not separated into age-groups of any kind and are allowed to mix freely, interacting with those younger and older than themselves; free age-mixing is emphasized as a powerful tool for learning and development in all ages.
- Autonomous democracy: parents have limited involvement or no involvement in the school administration; Sudbury schools are run by a democratic school meeting where the students and staff participate exclusively and equally. Such meetings are also the sole authority on hiring and firing of staff, unlike most other schools.
- אתר חינוך אלטרנטיבי - זרמי חינוך עצמאי בישראל
- איפה אפשר ללמוד אחרת, כלכליסט, 26.01.2009
- רשימת בתי ספר אנתרופוסופיים, אנתרופוסופיה בישראל
- למידה בבית ספר דמוקרטי, DinaRamot-learning
- בית הספר הדמוקרטי בבקעת אונו
שגיאת ציטוט: קיימות תגיות
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